Local police service according to the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation

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for the last 10 years several projects on creation in our country of service of municipal (local) police were offered, in this question the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation has the position also, will consider it in this article

article was for the first time published
on May 28, 2018 on Yandex channel. Zen

Local police service according to the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation

The question «Be or Not Be in Russia to Municipal (Local) Police Service?» is rather relevant. For the last ten years political parties and social movements announced several initiatives of its creation. However not one of projects was not taken cognizance, the Government of the Russian Federation did not show to them interest, these projects also did not get serious public support. To consider the specified projects I do not see sense (to whom can interestingly find them in the Internet), except for one: initiatives of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation.
Judging by messages in some media, the ministry developed and sent the bill «About Municipal Militia in the Russian Federation» to regions. It is confirmed also by the message on the official site of the All-Russian Research Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation where it is specified that 16.02.2017 the bill was considered at a meeting of the Academic council of institute. For the unknown reasons the full text of the bill in open sources is absent therefore it is necessary to be guided only by the available publications in the press. Most fully the initiative of the ministry is described in the article by the edition «КоммерсантЪ».
In a nutshell that the essence of offers of the Ministry of Internal Affairs comes down to creation of the certain municipal body with the name «Municipal Militia» which does not have a police uniform, weapon, special means and powers and also function of ensuring public order independently. According to authors of the bill, such structure will «help» police divisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs with performance of their tasks of protection of law and order on streets and in other public places.
It is interesting to me: in the management of the Ministry of Internal Affairs really believe that such structure will be able really to help something to police, and in case of danger will manage to protect citizens?
If it is formal, on paper - that is unconditional yes. Now for the reporting write to the report that some crimes were solved together with representatives of Voluntary national teams or other public organizations of law-enforcement orientation. Though the actual role of these assistants in crime detection was rather nominal, at best they just were present at detention by police officers of the suspect, observing everything from outside. Though most often no social activists during detention existed at all, they were just entered in the report of incidents «for the reporting».
Structures with similar functionality exist several years in Izhevsk, Shakhty, Belgorod, Zlatoust and several more cities of our country. According to citizens no visible positive effect from their participation in ensuring public order in these cities is noticeable yet.
The main problem of similar of «police substitutes» that within the powers and opportunities they cannot independently work. They can reveal administrative offenses, but cannot stop them because the probability of disobedience or even direct aggression in their party is high from the violator. At the same time it is good if such violator is one and will be not in the best physical shape. And if it is aggressive-minded group what then?
The one who expected that such «municipal militiamen» should deal only with respectable and law-abiding citizens is waited by disappointment: such people of offenses, as a rule, do not make and if it and occurs, then it is extremely rare.
In most cases the police should deal with not the best representatives of our society, a considerable part of whom the law is violated quite consciously, and often and defiantly. Cases of rendering to police officers of the disobedience or resistance including armed stopped being a rarity for a long time. Moreover, in recent years the number of police officers who died and were wounded in «peaceful» regions of the country was exceeded by losses in zones of counter-terrorist operations.
In a similar situation creation of municipal militia by the option offered the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation (without police uniform, weapon and powers) will be creation rather the potential victims for criminals, but not those who will be able to protect from them citizens. Figuratively speaking it how to use for protection of the house of a dog, badly seeing, hearing, toothless and lame on three legs. Much from it will be to sense as a sentry dog?
I am sure that in the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation perfectly it is understood. But despite it, persistently continue to bend the line, advancing the law which will not have any positive impact on a situation with street crime owing to what does not provide for this purpose necessary tools.
Formally, «for the reporting», the effect certainly will be, positive results will be «drawn» (regarding manipulations with statistics of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation for a long time out of competition). But upon effect will be at the level of a statistical error. There is a reasonable question: why then to do it?
Judging by the comments of regional officials and other experts provided in articles of «КоммерсантЪ» and RBC which studied the bill offered the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, it will not grant to local authorities the right to create data of structure, and will directly oblige them it to do.
It is possible what in such strange way of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation tries to keep the monopoly position regarding ensuring public order and public safety, even in spite of the fact that it becomes to the detriment of the interests of the population.
The concept of our initiative is completely opposite that it offers the Ministry of Internal Affairs. We consider that the municipal police has to be created as police service, but with limited functionality.
According to our initiative, functions of municipal police have to be limited to ensuring public order on streets and in other public places, prevention and suppression of obvious crimes and administrative offenses, rapid response to messages of citizens incidents and protection of law and order when holding mass actions. In fact, these tasks are similar to tasks security guard and patrol service of police of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation.
The main restriction is an absence at municipal police of the right to accept procedural and (at the first stage) administrative decisions, these powers have to remain an exclusive prerogative of federal executive authorities. Further the local police can transfer the right of drawing up protocols and decision-making on violations of the local administrative legislation.
For full performance of the tasks assigned to them the staff of municipal police has to be dressed in the uniform similar to a form of police of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, have firearms, special means, motor transport with a special coloring and special signals. But the main thing, they have to be given legitimate rights all this to apply to protection of citizens against criminal encroachments, control of offenses and administrative offenses, detention of the persons who made them.
Therefore the main issues of activity of municipal police have to be regulated rigidly by the federal legislation, and here local governments have to perform financing and management.
At the same time creation as a part of administration of the municipal unit of municipal police for local governments has to be the right, but not a duty.
In more detail you can study the concept of our initiative in the explanatory note to the bill «About Municipal Police in the Russian Federation» drafted by us.
In work on an initiative we in detail studied foreign experience (as domestic experience in the matter, unfortunately, does not exist yet) creation and activity of municipal police in the different countries, on this subject you can find articles and reviews on our website. Comparison showed that our initiative is comparable to the models existing in the Czech Republic or Latvia, and the initiative of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation reminds the model accepted in Estonia or Serbia more.
At the same time remains unclear for what achievement of the purposes of the Ministry of Internal Affairs puts forward the project of creation of new structure on protection of public order if for the «beautiful» reporting also existing quite fits? What does the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation try to achieve, so actively lobbying creation of it of «a police substitute» which activity as law-enforcement structure, it is in advance doomed to a failure? In the management of the Ministry of Internal Affairs cannot but obviously understand it. Then why to do it?
This question remains without answer so far.

I want to express huge gratitude for the help in writing of this and other articles to Semyon Yulianov. In the blog Semyon states the opinion of current problems in activity of law enforcement agencies of our country and shares stories from own practice. In its articles objective and critical judgments well mix up with venomous comments and flashing humour. I am personally familiar with Semyon many years, this is the Professional from capital letter, more than a quarter of the century given to service in bodies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Prosecutor's office.

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the text is translated by means of technical means of the translation
original language of the text – Russian
some words and phrases can be translated not correctly and not correspond to original sense

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