Tasks of municipal police of prevention of offenses

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the main objectives, tactics and strategy, what campaign in prevention of offenses have to use in municipal police for achievement of maximum efficiency in safety of the population

article was for the first time published
on August 29, 2018 on Yandex channel. Zen

Tasks of municipal police of prevention of offenses

Prevention of offenses – «Business, we will repeat, boring. Awards and admiration of the public not promising. Even it is difficult to give achievements in the field of prevention: if the detective solves the loud crime, he is awarded, he gains popularity; if the same detective prevents crime, about it, most likely, nobody learns. Though, it seems, all agree: to prevent — the main thing. Well, it was possible and not to be engaged in this business. But prevention of crimes — one of the most effective directions of right protection? It state importance task? Undoubtedly.». *
As it was already told by earlier main task for municipal police there has to be a prevention of offenses. This work is divided into several directions and is carried out in parallel.
The first direction is prevention of offenses on streets and in other public places. It is provided first of all due to increase in density of patrol, i.e. the number of the police officers patrolling the area.
It is no secret that for the last 10 years the number of police squads of the streets which are carrying out patrol and other public places significantly decreased, the reductions which took place within reform of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation and growing, especially recently, shortage of staff are the reason for that.
In some cities the number of employees of the security guard and patrol service of police of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation was cut by half as compared was till 2010. Respectively what such situation of an order on streets does not add.
Creation of divisions of security guard and patrol service of municipal police in addition to forces of similar divisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation which are already available in municipalities could meet these lacks. It is important to result patrol density on city streets, in norms which are dictated by the actual criminogenic situation, but not «positive dynamics» from reports of local departments and the Departments of MIA which with reality has nothing in common.
Besides increase in density of patrol the municipal police has to use essentially other tactics in ensuring public order, concerning that that is now used in the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
Business is in that, in the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation the efficiency of prevention is tried to be measured by statistics, from there and there are that, well familiar to all - «plans and sticks». Respectively that to achieve good indicators in the reporting, patrol and inspection squads of police should reveal as much as possible offenses and to document the facts of their commission. At first sight, everything is logical and correct, however it not absolutely so. In difference from penal acts where crime (the truth now not everyone) can be stopped at a stage of preparation and to make the suspect responsible, concerning crimes of small weight and administrative offenses, there are no such legal tools. As a result, to implement the «Plan» established by the management to police officers to have to organize service so that not to stop offense at a stage of preparation or attempt, and on the contrary to give to the violator the chance to make it. Not to prevent it, namely to document the fact of the come true violation.
For municipal police as it was already told above, approach has to be opposite, their main task is first of all prevention and suppression of the facts of commission of offenses on streets and in other public places, but not achievement of statistics.
Performance of this task is reached in two ways:
1. Open (demonstrative) patrol – when a dress serves most openly, without hiding from potential violators waiting when those commit offense and without making on them ambushes. And on the contrary, defiantly to designate the presence on a route. The main goal of a dress in this case not to expose, and to force the potential violator to refuse the illegal intentions.
2. To use the strategy of elimination of the reasons, but not consequences.
In what an essence of such approach, we will explain on a simple example with which I think, many faced in everyday life.
Let's assume that there is a section of the highway with high concentration of the road accidents, the carried-out analysis showed that violations by drivers of requirements of a marking and the high-speed mode became the reason of accidents. Further the management of division of the Ministry of Internal Affairs to traffic police squad sets a task to carry out a number of preventive actions on this section of the road and as usual, with the obligatory instruction at the end «To report on results...». And results in the Ministry of Internal Affairs can be only quantitative, so the actual task to traffic police squad will sound approximately so – to make in change not less than 15 protocols for speeding and as much for violation of requirements of a marking. Here only to make the protocol on traffic offense, it is necessary that drivers on this site violated these rules and the more the better. And it means, the traffic police squad will arrive according to the habitual, acquired decades scheme, namely in the low-perceptible place on this emergency site will mount the device of measurement of speed and the camera, itself will get up much further and will be engaged only in documenting of the traffic offenses revealed by technical means and drawing up protocols. Upon violation on this site will proceed further, to the next tragedy after which the representative of the Ministry of Internal Affairs will say that on this site scheduled maintenance is conducted constantly, hundreds of violations are revealed, hundreds of drivers are made responsible.
Though of course a certain preventive effect of it on this site nevertheless will be, it will be provided available in our country, among drivers by tradition, «to blink» headlights, warning a counter flow about the post of traffic police which is ahead. Having received such warning, most of drivers reduce speed to admissible and move strictly within the strip that respectively reduces risk of commission of road accident to a minimum. But not all warn and not always therefore violations on this site will continue, as well as tragedies. And the victim in these accidents and to their relatives, statistics of local department of traffic police will not be interesting at all.
Now let's consider other approach to this situation. If the task is set differently, not to reveal as much as possible violations, and on the contrary to reduce their quantity. How then does the dress on this site have to arrive? Everything is right, he has to get up not at the end of the dangerous site, and in the middle, at the same time having chosen such place what it would be well visible from the most long distance, ideally as an additional measure also having exposed at the beginning of the site the warning sign about the presence. In such cases as practice shows, the number of violators decreases repeatedly that respectively, conducts also to considerable decrease in number of road accident with tragic consequences, and these are the saved lives, health and property of citizens.
Similar approach is applicable not only regarding traffic safety. I gave an example with the road only because it is well familiar and clear to most of the ordinary people who are not connected with activity of law enforcement agencies in any way. And, above all, it demonstrates a difference in approaches to providing law and order and prevention of offenses.
Municipal police, building the tactics in safety of citizens in all directions, has to use the second approach, using the principle, developed at a criminology dawn as sciences - «The main thing to warn» **. How exactly to apply this approach in the organization of service of municipal police, we will talk in the following articles.

* Sergey Kredov of «Shchelokov».
** Cesare Beccaria «About crimes and punishments».

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the text is translated by means of technical means of the translation
original language of the text – Russian
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