Municipal police in Serbia - Комунална Полиција


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the history and development, the main forces, problems of function and power of municipal police, its role in the law-enforcement system of the Republic Serbia, the current reforms, changes and the prospects of development

Municipal police in Serbia - Комунална Полиција
besides writing of the name on Cyrillics of «Комунална Полиција», in connection with signing by the Republic Serbia of the contract on association with the European Union, it is often possible to meet the name of municipal police of Serbia in Latin - Komunalna policija.


Note of the author: now in the republic there is a reform of municipal law enforcement bodies during which the name Police on Militia was replaced, at present in a number of the cities of Serbia the name - Komunalna milicija is already used. However judging by publications in the Serbian media, this decision is not final and in the long term a lot of things can change including return to the old name is not excluded. I attentively monitor a situation with reform of municipal police in Serbia, and in process of the happening changes the corresponding additions will be made to article.


The municipal police in Serbia appeared rather recently - in 2009 when the government of the republic adopted the law «About Municipal Police». The decision on creation in the territory of municipality of municipal (local) police is made by local government bodies. The created division is a component of bodies of the local executive authority of the municipal unit (municipal management or administration of concrete area), is financed from means of the local budget.
Initially the legislation of Serbia provided a binding of the number of staff of staff of division of municipal police to the number of the population which is constantly living in the territory of service. The following ratio was established: one municipal police officer on 5000 inhabitants. However such condition deprived municipal units with low population (less than 100 thousand inhabitants) of a possibility of creation of divisions of municipal police therefore in the first years it existed mainly in the large cities and districts. It should be noted that within many years attempts to make changes to this law were repeatedly made, and at least to reduce the number of inhabitants in the ratio by 1 municipal police officer. Similar offers were connected with the fact that the existing number of employees of municipal police appeared insufficiently for law enforcement.
In 2016 these these initiatives partially were crowned with success, and the legislation regulating questions of creation and activity of service Komunalna Politsi_a in Serbia underwent a number of changes. Here the main of them:
- the formula limiting the number of employees of municipal police with the number of the population living in the territory of service was changed. Now municipalities within the budget which is available for them determine the number of local police;
- municipalities acquired the right for creation of joint (intermunicipal) divisions of police divisions which can serve two or more adjoining the settlement;

Note of the author: perhaps studied and applied positive experience of the Czech Republic in the matter, in more detail about such experience and opportunities of its application here.
- powers of employees of Komunaln Politsi_a were a little expanded.
By the legislation of Serbia for municipal police it is not established uniform requirements to a uniform of employees and a coloring of office motor transport therefore the appearance of staff of local police and patrol cars in the different cities of the republic differs (see a photo 1, 2, 3).
At employment, it is carried out on a competitive basis, after approval of the candidate, future staff of municipal police goes to specialized training center where takes a course of special preparation. After the termination of the obligatory program listeners take examinations in the main disciplines. The employees who successfully passed test receive a form, special means and are allowed before work on streets.

Functions and tasks
Municipal police of Serbia within the competence:
- participates in ensuring public order in the territory of service;
- controls observance and execution of norms and requirements of the local (municipal) legislation;
- provides protection of municipal property, municipal roads, parks, squares and other green plantings;
- renders assistance of state police in performance of its tasks.
Carries out tasks of prevention and suppression:
- small administrative offenses (including in the sphere of street trade);
- violations of environmental and sanitary standards (garbage, plants in parks, damage of lawns and so forth);
- road traffic offenses and parking;
- road traffic offenses from pedestrians;
- rules of travel by public transport (identification and punishment of the persons who did not pay journey);
- violations of the rules established for passenger carriers and taxi services;
- violation of the rules (mode) of work of objects of trade (markets and shops), public catering and pleasure institutions;
- violations of the sanitary standards and requirements established in the territory of the settlement regarding cleaning and garbage removal, to a condition of work of drains and the sewerage;
- violations of requirements to keeping of pets.
In some cities on municipal police control of timely cleaning of snow, clearing of streets and sidewalks and also other tasks, often very far from police officers, but put by local administration is imposed.

Main forces
Mainly it is the patrolmen of division serving on streets and in other public places with use of office motor transport. It is also possible to meet patrols on motorcycles, scooters or bicycles.

Powers
In the activity the staff of municipal police of Serbia can use the following powers:
- to demand from citizens of the termination of commission of offense;
- to check documents at citizens and to identify their personality;
- to carry out personal inspection of citizens, external inspection of vehicles and other objects in the presence of the sufficient bases;
- to use technical means of control of traffic;
- to carry out open (public) video surveillance on streets and other public places and also objects of municipal property.
In case at the time of the address is available for the violator at itself the document proving his identity, then the staff of municipal police has no powers it to detain and to bring to police. In this case to the person who showed documents on the place a warning is issued or the penalty is written out. When the identity certificate is absent, or the offender refuses to stop the illegal activity or shows resistance - the municipal police officer has the right to use force and to bring it to policy station. If the municipal police officer faces commission of criminally liable act (crime), serious resistance or the offender is armed, he has to cause to the place of the staff of state police of Serbia.
For suppression of obvious threats of life and to health of citizens and staff of municipal police and also suppression of resistance, employees can use physical force and special means: rubber sticks, tear gas, electroconvulsive devices and handcuffs.
Staff of municipal police of Serbia has no right for storage, carrying and use of firearms or weapon of limited defeat.

Conclusion

(as of date of the first publication of article, in February, 2018)
Personally at me great doubts are raised that the service called in Serbia municipal police can significantly affect a condition of public order on streets of the Serbian cities. The matter is that the so-called Municipal police in Serbia, as well as similar service in Estonia or Greece, is a striking example of «a police substitute». Despite the name, it is not full-fledged police service. Upon it the ordinary municipal officials of a local link dressed in a form with rubber sticks and handcuffs on a belt, however their presence on streets practically does not influence a condition of public order in any way.
Confirmation to such conclusion is the fact that the capital of Serbia — Belgrade - strongly holds the second place in the rating of the most dangerous cities of Europe, conceding the first place only to Kiev. Among the main reasons for hit in this rating three are specified, namely:
1. corruption;
2. petty larcenies;
3. street vandalism.
And if the municipal police can affect the first of them only indirectly, then two others just are in its direct competence. As sets this example, in nearly 10 years of the existence it was not succeeded to change a situation to the best to service of municipal police of Serbia yet.

Reforming and prospects
Now in Serbia there is a large-scale reform of a system of municipal bodies of protection of law and order. It is planned to change including the name. The matter is that earlier changes were made to the law of Serbia "About Police" according to which the right to use the name «Police» was left only behind the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of Defence of the Republic. To municipal security forces suggest to use the name «Militia».
Besides change of the name, to municipals, in addition to already available functionality plan to add also rescue and also tasks of emergency response of natural and technogenic character. Also it is planned to expand legal powers of staff of municipal police, including regarding coercive measures, use of physical force and special means.
Now there are public discussions of new amendments to the legislation and judging by messages to media of a consensus in the matters at the Serbian politicians, there are no officials and experts.
Note: I will watch closely process. If the website is read by the acting staff of municipal police (militia) of Serbia, will be glad to your changes and additions to article. Write on e-mail or in group of VKontakte. In process of receipt of new information article will be supplemented. Data on updates will be published in group of VKontakte.


article for the first time was published on February 24, 2018 on Yandex channel. Zen
in connection with closing of the channel it is postponed for the website on March 27, 2019
the last change is made on September 17, 2019





It is a little photo about work of municipal police officers in Serbia
(all photos are clickable, press the image for increase)

Serbia is the patrol car of municipal police Serbia is the patrol car of municipal police Serbia is the patrol car of municipal police Serbia - patrol of municipal police helps children crossing the road

Serbia is patrol of municipal police an administrative offense Serbia is patrol of municipal police by bicycles Serbia - patrol of municipal police controls the crosswalk Serbia - the staff of municipal police

ATTENTION
the text is translated by means of technical means of the translation
original language of the text – Russian
some words and phrases can be translated not correctly and not correspond to original sense

photos are taken from the following media: kurir.rs, jugmedia.rs, blic.rs, informer.rs, novisad.rs





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