Municipal police in Poland - Straż miejska

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the history and development, the main forces, tasks and functions, legal status and powers of municipal police, its role in the law-enforcement system of the Polish Republic

Municipal police in Poland - Straż miejska

Municipal police in Poland - Straż miejska
in translation from Polish the name is meant by «City guards», one more name Straż gminna - «Municipal Guard» also meets.
Historically municipal police of Poland developed from city guards, with it and its name is connected. The first mentions of the local militarized services with police functions in Poland belong to the middle of the 17th century when in Warsaw the first division of city guard was created. Further this service was repeatedly reformed, and in a number of the history periods in general was abolished.
The history of modern municipal police of Poland can be counted since 1990*(1) when in Poland the new law on police regulating issues of activity as the public and local authorities of protection of law and order came into force.
The municipal police was created partially as a counterbalance of national (state) police, and partially to guarantee that needs of local communities will not be ignored by the central government of Poland. In difference, for example, from Serbia where the number of staff of municipal police is rigidly tied to population, it is simpler and simpler here: the municipality employs so many police officers how many the budget allows it. Thanks to lack of such restrictions in Poland divisions of local police are even in small settlements, in some of them the number of staff is less than 10 employees.
Serious changes in legal status of local police took place in August, 1997 when the Diet of the Republic adopted the separate law «About Municipal Guards». This law accurately settled all questions of creation, activity and powers of local police services (I will remind that before activity of the state and local police was regulated by one law). It is also worth noting that in Poland, in difference from the majority of the countries where there is a local police, the law established requirements, uniform for all settlements, concerning a uniform of employees and a coloring of office motor transport of local police.

Functions and tasks
the main functionality of service of municipal police in Poland is an ensuring public order and safety of citizens on streets and in other public places, prevention and control of offenses and administrative offenses, control of performance of local laws, response to messages of citizens about incidents, providing law and order when holding actions with mass stay of citizens, sports, cultural or other character and also rendering assistance of state police.
Besides, ensuring protection of municipal property, and in certain cases and public officials is assigned to local police. The municipal police can render paid services as private protection in Poland also to citizens and legal entities.
In addition, the main objectives on control of observance of rules of the parking of motor transport, safety, and if necessary and to traffic regulation are assigned to them.
However besides the habitual police tasks assigned to local police in Poland there are also very specific, for example such:
- control of the residents having pets regarding implementation of requirements for their obligatory vaccination, chipping and registration;
- control of observance of the rules of visits of the wood established by the state and local laws, prevention and suppression of illegal actions which can cause damage to forestry;
- control of work of municipal municipal services, owners and administrators of real estate objects, regarding high-quality cleaning of snow and ice from streets, roads and sidewalks;
- activity in the field of control and catching of homeless animals.
In some cities as a part of divisions of local police there are departments or specially appointed employees whose main objective is providing and control of safety at schools and other child care facilities.

Main forces
As well as in most similar services of other countries of Europe, the main forces of municipal police of Poland are patrol divisions (similar to security guard and patrol service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation). They serve on ensuring public order and safety mainly on streets and in other public places as a part of pedestrian, automobile and motor-patrols, including with guard dogs, divisions of mounted police have also wide circulation.
In recent years in the large cities (especially where there are big football stadiums) as a part of local police the divisions of special function which are carrying out protection of public order when holding mass actions, mainly football matches began to be created. On the nature of the carried-out tasks, level of training and the used equipment (a photo 4) these divisions are similar to groups of GMFS FSNGT of Russia.
Also, in a number of the cities of Poland a zone of responsibility of local authorities are water areas of various reservoirs where it is possible to meet patrols of municipal police on office boats and high-speed motor boats. Their task includes safety and control of rules of navigation in coastal waters and also fight against poaching. In addition, rescue divisions also are a part of municipal police of some Polish cities.

staff of municipal police of Poland is given all main police authority regarding prevention and control of offenses and administrative offenses. They have the right to check documents, to demand the offense termination, to bring small violators to the site or to write out a penalty on the place, to evacuate motor transport for violation of the rules of the parking. To reveal, document, carry out administrative production, to make the decision on cases of administrative offenses, or to bring materials to trial.
The persons suspected of commission of crimes, municipal police officers report to the staff of national (state) police. Powers to carry out arrests and other investigative actions at municipal police is not present.
Staff of municipal police in Poland is dressed in the uniform of a sample, uniform for the whole country, similar to a form of national (state police), but with one external difference: околыш peak-caps of the municipal police officer has a chess coloring.
Employees have the right in the cases established by the law for use of physical force which are adopted special means: rubber sticks, handcuffs, tear gas, electroconvulsive devices and firearms.
With weapon at municipal police officers in Poland another story. Upon they on arms have both firearms and the right for its application, however questions of arms are under authority of officials (not police officers) of local government bodies.
Private opinion of the author: unfortunately, at such approach political populism often gets the best of common sense as result - in large part the Polish cities with weapon only those employees who are involved in protection of municipal property or maintenance of values take up service. The same employees who just patrol streets, office weapon alas have no.

*(1) however as approve some sources, it is necessary to reckon since 1984 when in Warsaw the first divisions of «Municipal police service» appeared. Their task was to strengthen control of respect for public order, maintaining esthetic image of the city and also ensuring protection of objects of the state and municipal property. Unfortunately, there is no more detailed information about this service, the reasons of its emergence, features and results of its activity in open sources. But the fact of existence of such constabulary forces during the specified period is confirmed: for example, about it is mute it is mentioned in the historical section of the official site of municipal police of Warsaw.

article for the first time was published on February 27, 2018 on Yandex channel. Zen
in connection with closing of the channel it is postponed for the website on March 27, 2019
the last change is made on September 10, 2019

It is a little photo about work of municipal police officers in Poland
(all photos are clickable, press the image for increase)

Poland is patrol of municipal police on the square Poland is patrol of municipal police by bicycles Poland is special group of municipal police when holding mass actions Poland is patrol of municipal police on the street

Poland is patrol of municipal police with guard dogs Poland - patrol of municipal police controls traffic safety Poland is horse patrol of municipal police Poland - patrol of municipal police provides protection of public order

photos are taken from communities of police in Facebook Straż Miejska, Straż Miejska Miasta Krakowa and Straż Miejska w Łodzi

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the text is translated by means of technical means of the translation
original language of the text – Russian
some words and phrases can be translated not correctly and not correspond to original sense

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