Municipal police in Italy - Polizia Municipale

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the history and formation, the main forces, tasks and functions, a legal status and powers of municipal and provincial police, their role in the law-enforcement system of Italy

Municipal police in Italy - Polizia Municipale

Municipal police in Italy - Polizia Municipale
(the name Polizia Locale is also often used that in translation means – local)
The history of municipal police in Italy originates since the Roman Empire when in the 29th year B.C. the emperor Octavian Augustus in the capital of the empire Rome created a cohort of city guards (Cohortes urbanae) which directly submitted to the prefect of the city. Any more not military, and mainly police functions, within the territory of the city were assigned to this division. In such look they existed about 400 years (exact date of their disbandment is unknown, the last mentions of them belong to the 4th century of our era). Further data on organized divisions of local police in the territory of modern Italy mainly belong to the middle of the 19th century. Then in the name the word "police" was not used yet, the created divisions were called differently: municipal protection, guards or guard. The uniform standard to such service at that time was not therefore in some provinces others also were added to police functions. For example, in a number of provinces "municipal police" performed also functions of a fire service, protection of agricultural holdings and fight against poaching in forests. Also requirements to candidates for service in such divisions were interesting. For example, in Florence in 1852 for service in municipal guards employed only men aged from 25 up to 30 years and not less than 166 cm in height.
The modern history of municipal police of Italy originates in 1986 when the law on the right of local government bodies of the cities, settlements and provinces on creation of own police services was adopted.
If to compare to other countries of Western and Eastern Europe, then the municipal police of Italy has the system of the organization rather interesting and unique in own way. Let's begin with the fact that in Italy, besides municipal which exists in the cities of Italy and works in borders of municipalities there is one more type of local police, it is Polizia Provinciale (provincial police), natural supervision and also fight against poaching also is within its competence besides the general police functions. Their activity is regulated by the regional legislation, and powers are slightly wider, than at their municipal colleagues. If to consider similar service in relation to Russia, then it will be the certain "hybrid employee" with tasks of security guard and patrol service, road and hunting supervision in one person who is territorially belonging to police not of municipal, but regional, regional or district submission, but not being structure of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
One more interesting feature: in the different cities and the provinces of Italy the local police can have different names. So, the municipal police of Rome is called Polizia di Roma Capitale. At the same time words (Municipale, Locale, Provinciale) pointing to belonging of police to local government bodies, in the name are absent as are absent also on a uniform of employees and office motor transport (see a photo 1 and 2).
It should be noted also that there are no uniform requirements to a uniform for the staff of local police services in Italy, the appearance of employees of Polizia Municipale (Locale) of various provinces is established by local authorities therefore differs, as well as a coloring of their police cars. For example, patrol cars of municipal police of Rome are painted in white color with a dark-violet strip on boards, in Milan a strip of green color, in Genoa light blue, and in Verona all on the contrary, color of the car dark blue, and a strip on boards white.

Functions and tasks
In Italy the majority of the main police functions and tasks regarding ensuring public order and safety, prevention and control of offenses and administrative offenses, on streets and in other public places is assigned to municipal police. Proceeding from available information in open sources, it is possible to draw a conclusion that in Italy there is some kind of division of duties between local police and police of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Italy. In particular, administrative and other small offenses, municipal police because the majority of such violations belong to jurisdiction of local authorities is engaged first of all. The matter is that the local analog of the Code of Administrative Offences also works in each province, besides nation-wide. Respectively, a paramount task for municipal police is control of observance of local laws in all areas of life. It is connected also with the fact that penalties for violation of local laws come to the local budget from which pay police officers salary.
Despite such division, the staff of municipal police on an equal basis with the state police officers patrols streets, leaves on calls and other messages about incidents, provides an order when carrying out holidays, is sports, politically and other actions with mass stay of citizens. Assist the staff of divisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Italy in detention of criminals and illegal migrants. Also on them control of observance by drivers of traffic regulations is imposed.

Main forces
Mainly it is patrolmen of division who serve on protection of public order and ensuring public safety on streets and other public places, on highways, both in settlements, and beyond their limits (Polizia Provinciale jurisdiction).
Also as a part of local police there are separate divisions which mainly are involved in providing law and order when holding festive, sporting, cultural and other events with mass stay of citizens.
Service is carried out both in a pedestrian order, and on special police transport, cars and motorcycles, in some cities it is possible to meet patrols with guard dogs and squads of mounted police.

Conducting investigation and search operations and investigative actions is not included into competence of municipal police, but employees of Polizia Municipale (Locale) according to the law have all necessary powers for control of offenses, detention and bringing in policy station of persons them made.
The provincial police of powers have a little more, they besides rapid response can carry out an initial inspection according to messages about incidents If during such check it is established that a crime of average or more weight is committed, then further already state police of Italy will be engaged in it. If on it the staff of provincial police conducts this crime of small weight, then all legal proceedings independently, up to case referral in court. Perhaps, it is connected with the fact that in provinces where there are a lot of small settlements, Polizia Provinciale is the main police service.
In spite of the fact that under the law the staff of divisions of municipal police in Italy has the right for carrying and use of firearms and also special means, not all their divisions are armed. It is connected with what the decision to arm or not the police is in competence of local authorities and they make the decision to have or not to them this right. Usually in the large cities and provinces municipal police officers are armed, in small and quieter areas only the state police has a weapon, the local police are content only with special means.
Office vehicle fleet of municipal police has the status of special transport with the right of primary journey, cars are painted in a police coloring and equipped with special signals.

article for the first time was published on April 10, 2018 on Yandex channel. Zen
in connection with closing of the channel it is postponed for the website on March 27, 2019
the last change is made on September 07, 2019

It is a little photo about work of municipal police officers in Italy
(all photos are clickable, press the image for increase)

patrol car of municipal police of Rome patrolmen of municipal police of Rome Italy is pedestrian patrol of municipal police Italy is patrol of municipal police by bicycles

Italy is patrol of municipal police on motorcycles Italy is road patrol of provincial police Italy is the patrol car of provincial police Italy is raid of municipal police

the text is translated by means of technical means of the translation
original language of the text – Russian
some words and phrases can be translated not correctly and not correspond to original sense

photos are taken from communities of police in Facebook Polizia Roma Capitale, Polizia Municipale Lecce and Polizia Provinciale Italia

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