Relationship of municipal police and services of the MIA of the Russian Federation

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as the relations of these services, joint activity for safety of citizens or the conflict of interests, effective interaction or the competition will be under construction, we will try to understand

article was for the first time published
on March 02, 2018 on Yandex channel. Zen

Relationship of municipal police and services of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation

This question is also often brought up in comments, at the same time in some cases subscribers give very negative outlooks to the matter. Opinions are expressed that creation of municipal police will lead to the conflict with the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation. In addition, serious doubts express that divisions of local and state police will manage to establish cooperation even at the grassroots level.
Let's try to understand these questions.

On the nature of tasks which are established by the law and those powers which he confers, divisions of municipal police it is necessary to interact with territorial divisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation closely. The main interaction will be mainly with the services and divisions of police of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation relating to ensuring public order. Such as security guard and patrol service of police, service of district police officers, inspectorate for affairs of minors, traffic police of traffic police. In this article we will consider slightly in more detail the main of them of them.
The security guard and patrol service of police (SGPSP or a better known and habitual abbreviation - SGPS) is the main service in common with which the staff of municipal police should serve on ensuring public order on streets and in other public places. The staff of municipal police should interact with SGPS Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation most often.
We see employees of SGPS daily: they patrol streets (on official cars or in a pedestrian order), they the first come when we call in police, reporting the accident, and they provide an order when holding mass actions. And it is only the main functions of security guard and patrol service. Here only as many could notice, in recent years employees of SGPS on streets became less.
Respectively the preventive effect which gave just fact of their presence on streets considerably weakened.
The reasons of such situation it is possible to bring much. The first of them are serious reductions of the number of staff to which this service within the reform of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation begun in 2010 and which disgracefully ended in the 2011th at the same time in some cities repeatedly underwent the number of staff of SGPS decreased to 30%, and actual to 50%.
However, it is yet not the biggest problem. Much worse another: the number of employees was reduced, and the volume of the tasks set for divisions SGPS left former, and in some cities even increased. As result - very high loads of employees, constant service in the so-called «strengthened» option, and so forth. Of course, all this affects quality of work, more precisely, on its absence. Unfortunately, in the next years, judging by the strategy of further «optimization» elected by the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the number of SGPS will be reduced even more, also load of the remained employees respectively will grow.
Interaction of divisions of security guard and patrol service of municipal police and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation will be based first of all on the principles of interchangeability, addition and strengthening of opportunities of each other. Where the forces will not be enough SGPS, the control room of territorial division of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation can always involve SGPS squads of municipal police. And it is very relevant, taking into account much the loading which increased in recent years.
The fact of existence in the city of municipal police, could lower considerably load of employees of SGPS of police of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, first of all because patrols of municipal police will be able to undertake a part of routes of patrol, in particular where the difficult operational situation demands constant police presence.
Respectively, the bigger number of patrols will allow to react to messages about incidents quicker. That is important, it will also allow squads to come to the rescue quicker each other when one squad cannot cope with a situation. And such cases there was much more recently.
The danger, other, more global on the contents, is terrorism. More precisely, its modern version when loner fanatics act. As shows the Russian and foreign experience of the last years if intelligence agencies do not manage to prevent similar tragedies at a preparation stage, then scales of terrorist attack and the number of the possible victims will depend directly on two factors:
1. patrol density - the number of police squads on a certain unit of the territory;
2. efficiency of reaction - arrival time of police squad to the scene from the moment of obtaining the message.
These factors are directly interconnected among themselves: the patrol density is higher, the quicker the closest police squad arrives to the scene.
Such density of patrol at which the efficiency of reaction is less than three minutes is optimum. Unfortunately, now in our country a similar indicator of efficiency, probably, any territorial division of the Ministry of Internal Affairs does not possess.
It is important to understand that in terrorist attacks of this kind the main task of the terrorist is a maximum of the victims for time minimum. And this rule extends not only to terrorists. In practice it can be the person with a mental disorder who is under the influence of drugs or other intoxicating substances, and chasing with the axe on the yard neighbors. In such situations (and they, unfortunately, not a rarity) life and human health directly depend on the speed of arrival of police.
Just imagine a similar situation and think: what will such armed and criminal lunatic manage to make if to give him at least 10 minutes of time? Though upon this period of time will be more, often the person in a similar state moves quickly enough, and in 10 minutes is capable to overcome to kilometer in any direction from the place of the first attack.
At the optimum density of patrol and high speed of reaction of police the criminal just physically will not manage to do harm to a large number of people as it will be quickly neutralized. And in a situation with density of police squads and speed of their arrival on the scene which we have today citizens should expect rather own care, good luck and ability to run quickly, than on the quick and effective help of law enforcement authorities.
The main objective of municipal police if not completely to fix the existing problem with patrol density, then at least considerably to increase this density, having brought closer an indicator to optimum. Having strengthened and having added with the posts and patrols of a possibility of divisions of SGPS of territorial authority of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation in this municipal unit. Thereby considerably having reduced both the probability of similar threats, and their possible consequences.
Besides the high density of patrol considerably reduces the number of the committed crimes and increases solvability «without delay» of other types of crime and also administrative offenses.

Municipal police and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation – the conflict of interests
Such forecast often expressed in comments and messages that it will be difficult to divisions of municipal police to establish cooperation with police of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, statistical reporting and «the first line of the report»* will be fault to all.
In general the system of statistical reporting operating in the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation is a subject not for a separate post or article, and rather for the doctoral dissertation therefore to discuss it there is no sense, everyone who served or serves in police perfectly knows, what is it. It is only worth noting what on this system in the Ministry of Internal Affairs is under construction both the organization of activity, and the system of assessment.
In municipal police other system of the organization and assessment of activity is supposed essentially. The principle of performance of the tasks set to division will be at the center put. And in spite of the fact that the functionality of municipal police is in many respects similar to functions of police of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation their main objective - it is to add and to strengthen territorial Department of Internal Affairs, but not to compete with them.
Here it is worth reminding one important point that the project Federal Law «About Municipal Police in the Russian Federation» within this initiative, the municipal police has rights only to prevent and stop crimes and administrative offenses, and here it does not possess the right to make proceeding and administrative decisions. And it means that all crimes and small offenses revealed and solved by municipal police will go to indicators just of territorial division of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation.
In addition, at the competent organization of interaction between bodies of municipal police and territorial Department of Internal Affairs the last can receive for themselves still a number favorable (including in the material plan) additions, namely:
1. To reduce the number of the staff involved in ensuring public order when holding mass actions, political, sports or cultural and mass character by 90%, and such it is now carried out much. Almost all these events are held either on an initiative, or with the permission of the city authorities, and, above all most of them are led to days off and holidays. Today for ensuring public order on such actions of the involved employees deprive of days off which at them and so there is not a lot of. Now these functions are undertaken by municipal police, all mass actions of the city authorities is its direct zone of responsibility.
2. Almost completely to cancel introduction for external services of the strengthened service options. Strengthenings are, as a rule, entered when the operational situation demands increase in density of patrol and police presence on streets. Most often orders on introduction of the strengthened option of service order to front divisions to increase a release of orders of daily change with 25-30% and such mode can last for months. Certainly that to the employees who are constantly serving without days off and checkpoints (and often also not understanding a coma and why it is necessary), it does not add office eagerness. The offered initiative allows due to use of squads of municipal police allows to hold without any strengthenings density of patrol increased by 75-100% in the constant mode. Such measure (certainly at competent and pragmatic approach) will allow the term «the strengthened service option» from ordinary to turn into exclusive about which will remember only in introduction cases in the territory of the municipal unit of the emergency mode or counter-terrorist operation.
3. Assignment of tasks (regarding ensuring public order) on implementation of the state program «Comfortable urban environment» from the Ministry of Internal Affairs on municipal police. This program already which year is a stumbling block between local governments and the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The city authorities demand from the police management that constant posts and patrols in parks and squares are necessary, checks of nurseries and sports grounds, there are more squads on the central streets and places with mass stay of citizens that there did not smoke, did not drink, did not talk smut, did not arrange discos, did not kindle fires, did not paint a wall, did not break trees and did not scatter garbage and so forth.
However all this demands: people, time and material resources which the local police, as a rule, does not have because the higher division of the Ministry of Internal Affairs sets absolutely other tasks for them. As a result of the chief of local Regional Office of the Ministry of Internal Affairs put in position «Stand There, Go Here» and at the exit such attempt to please all brings only to one, to result, it is not possible to execute not one of tasks in full. Respectively that in the presence of municipal police, the question of the one who exactly has to carry out tasks of implementation of the Comfortable Urban Environment program loses the relevance.

At reasonable approach, the organization of high-quality interaction between municipal and state police is favorable to both parties. The listed above areas of work not only where the municipal police and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation can not clash and compete, and on the contrary strengthen and supplement each other, ensuring an order and safety on streets of the cities.
Certainly, at the competent management in these structures when the interests of citizens, but not statistics are taken as a basis.

* the system of primary control of activity of subordinates of divisions existing in the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation is arranged thus:
each crime registered by a control room is included in the daily report where data on time and the place of commission of crime, its short description, data of the victim and the police officers involved in his working off are specified.
If the crime is solved within day from the moment of commission (in such cases speak «it is opened in day on duty»), then in the report after the description of an event entry approximately of such contents is made:
- «during ORM (investigation and search operations), without delay the senior of a SGPS 125 squad Ivanov on suspicion of commission of this crime detained the citizen Petrov, the stolen property is withdrawn …».
The head reading the report understands that this crime was solved by forces of battalion of security guard and patrol service of police. Same understands also the headquarters which on that service which is specified in the report of the first makes internal statistics for assessment of a role of various services in disclosure of crimes.
Therefore solved the crime is considered that employee who is written down by the first in the report.

Opinion of the author: I consider the system of the competition and opposition created in the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation each other of services and divisions inadmissible. The competition is good in trade or other commercial activity, but not in law-enforcement in any way. How many human lives and destinies were sacrificed to police statistics we, probably, never learn. So far police officers in the activity will be guided by planned targets and statistics, but not upholding of interests of citizens, not about what «Police for people» to speak so far, unfortunately it is not necessary.
Law-enforcement activity at such approach, instead of performance of tasks of safety of citizens and legality, turns into a race behind statistics. Unfortunately, in this race there is no time left for due consideration to problems of ordinary people.
Therefore when developing an initiative, as one of fundamental the principle of absence at municipal police of the right for adoption of proceeding and administrative decisions, on all facts of illegal acts elicited by employees was chosen. The staff of municipal police prevents, reveals and stops offenses, but decisions on these facts are made by exclusively authorized public authorities of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Investigative Committee, Prosecutor's office. It has to reduce considerably perception of municipal police as the competing structure from the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, and, above all to remove a «statistical» factor from the system of assessment of its activity.

I want to express huge gratitude for the help in writing of this and other articles to Semyon Yulianov. In the blog Semyon states the opinion of current problems in activity of law enforcement agencies of our country and shares stories from own practice. In its articles objective and critical judgments well mix up with venomous comments and flashing humour. I am personally familiar with Semyon many years, this is the Professional from capital letter, more than a quarter of the century given to service in bodies of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Prosecutor's office.

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the text is translated by means of technical means of the translation
original language of the text – Russian
some words and phrases can be translated not correctly and not correspond to original sense

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