Municipal police - experience of countries of Western Europe, a brief summary


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in this article we briefly will generalize foreign experience of creation and activity of services of municipal police in countries of Western Europe which we considered in the previous reviews

article was for the first time published
on June 12, 2018 on Yandex Dzen channel

Municipal police - experience of countries of Western Europe, a brief summary

In the previous articles from the cycle «Foreign Experience» we considered the principles of the organization and activity of services and divisions of municipal police in such countries of Western Europe as: France, Switzerland, Italy, Spain and Greece.
As you could be convinced on the specified examples, the situation here too as well as in the countries, the former USSR and Eastern Europe which we regarded in the previous final review is very contradictory. Are well traced obvious differences in a system, both the organization, and activity of local law enforcement bodies, their functionality, tasks and powers.
It indicates lack of uniform approach to this question in the countries as Eastern and Western Europe. The service of municipal police in each single country on the is unique.
If to consider the models of the organization and activity of services of municipal police existing in countries of Western Europe regarding learning, then within our initiative not one of the considered systems is not suitable for Russia.
And that is why:

France
too difficult and tangled control system and submission. The municipal police is created according to the decision and financed by administration of local governments. However at the same time there are state prefects who can not only control, but also interfere with its activity. Up to that can individually make the decision on deprivation of local police of the right for carrying and use of firearms.
According to us – dual management of police service in any form is inadmissible. Also, apparently there are no accurate regulations regarding interaction between services of municipal and national police that apparently from the given example with act of terrorism in Nice leads to heavy consequences and the judicial conflicts.

Switzerland
the principles of the organization are constructed on independence of cantons of the central power, in each canton (region) own legislative base up to the law regulating issues of activity of police and the criminal code.
In Russia regions have no such extensive autonomous rights, the power vertical to be based on absolutely other principle. In addition in Switzerland the local police carries out a full range of police functions, including disclosure and investigation of crimes and also detention of suspects. We consider that in our country these functions have to remain in competence of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation.

Italy
even more difficult (than in France) and the separate system of the organization. The local police here is presented by three various services - municipal, provincial and rural. As well as in France, the question of arms, bodies of local police is referred by the law to competence of local authorities. It means that banal economy or fear of local officials of responsibility, can lead to the fact that in case of emergency situation * the local police risks to be unarmed in the face of terrorists or criminals. Respectively will not be able to protect not only local population, but also itself.
* the high level of terrorist threat in Europe and arrangement of Italy on a route of movement of refugees, do such threat very real.

Spain
well organized and effective system of activity of municipal police. However it is not suitable for Russia now.
The matter is that in Spain functions not only patrol service, but also partially district police officers, inspectorate for affairs of minors and National guard are assigned to municipal police. Such range of tasks at the initial stage too big.
However it is worth looking narrowly at this model as the prospect of further development of bodies of municipal police in Russia. Certainly, provided that it in general will be sometime created in our country.

Greece
what in Greece is called - municipal police upon it is not. Its main functions and tasks do not concern police officers. These are rather municipal officials of the lowest link who are carrying out the administrative and economic tasks referred to competence, bodies of local executive power, but not police.
On the functionality very much reminds similar services in Estonia or Serbia. It should be noted that such model of creation of service of municipal police in our country is actively advanced in the project by the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation.

On it we finish a cycle of articles to the devoted studying of foreign experience of the organization and activity of services of municipal police.

ATTENTION
the text is translated by means of technical means of the translation
original language of the text – Russian
some words and phrases can be translated not correctly and not correspond to original sense

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