Experience of creation of municipal police in the countries of the former USSR and Eastern Europe


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in this article we will sum up the intermediate results of studying of experience of creation and activity of municipal police in the countries of the former USSR and Eastern Europe

article was for the first time published
on March 14, 2018 on Yandex Dzen channel

Experience of creation of municipal police in the countries of the former USSR and Eastern Europe

Before moving further in studying of foreign experience of creation and activity of bodies of municipal police I suggest to sum up the intermediate results.
In the previous articles we considered as services of municipal police of the closest neighbors of Russia, in the countries of the former USSR and Eastern Europe work.
In my opinion, models of municipal police of the following countries most are suitable for use in Russia: Latvia, Czech Republic, Slovakia and partially Romania.
The main functionality of municipal police in these countries, mostly corresponds to our initiative. This ensuring public order and public safety on streets and in other public places, prevention and control of offenses and administrative offenses (including traffic regulations), rapid response to the message of citizens about illegal acts and other incidents and also assistance of the state police of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in performance of the tasks assigned to it.
For implementation of the functions in these countries the legislation provided necessary conditions, the staff of municipal police:
- are created by the decision of local governments and are financed by means of the local budget;
- carry out only those tasks which are defined by the state law and which within the rights granted by this law are put by administration of the municipal unit;
- are dressed in a uniform which is externally similar to a form of the state police;
- are given the rights and authority to use necessary coercive measures;
- have the right for use of physical force, special means and firearms;
- have the right to use special transport and the special light and sound signals providing primary journey.
The history of creation of municipal police in these countries is also similar in the bases to our initiative, namely, a main objective of its creation was - to guarantee that needs of residents of municipal units will not be ignored by federal executive authorities, regarding ensuring public order and safety.
Unfortunately, in our country today the above-stated problem is relevant. In a nutshell that its essence is expressed in the following – that for the head of department or department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation of the city or the area, tasks which are set to it by higher division of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, but not the address of residents of this city or municipal authorities are priority.
Separately it would be desirable to stop on one interesting moment in the organization of municipal police of the Czech Republic. It is about practice of creation of intermunicipal departments of municipal police, on the basis of agreements between the adjoining municipalities. I consider that the similar model can successfully be used also in Russia. It the maintenance of such departments due to their joint financing could reduce considerably costs. But the main thing that it could be economy without loss as safety on streets of these municipalities, and such opportunity meets not often. But it is a subject for separate article.

Why experience of Kazakhstan, Estonia and Serbia is not suitable for Russia

As for an experiment on creation of "Local police service" which is carried out in Kazakhstan now, in this case the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Kazakhstan, it seems, decided to repeat bitter experience of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation.
It is about a similar experiment when in Russia, in the late nineties the last century the militia was divided on a financing source, a part of employees got paid from the local budget, a part from federal. However at the same time, police officers though got paid from the municipal budget, but were in the structure of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation and obeyed first of all the orders of the management of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
As shows experience, any form of a diarchy especially in law enforcement agencies only interferes them with work, and I strongly doubt that Kazakhstan in this case will become an exception. Experience of Estonia and Serbia is rather negative (though such model of municipal police is actively lobbied by the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation). The staff of municipal police in these countries is dressed in a form, other than the state police, they have no weapon, and special means can use only for self-defense. In Estonia so in general one of priority tasks of municipal police it to catch free riders in trams.
I consider that the police disarmed and powers, are not police any more, and it is rather a parody to it. It is all the same that to send the surgeon to the operating room having taken away from him a scalpel and having prohibited to use other surgical instruments. Respectively creation of municipal police on a similar template on streets of the cities will not affect a criminogenic situation in any way, as a result it will be waste of taxpayers money.
On it studying of experience of creation and activity of bodies of municipal police at our closest neighbors, in the countries of the former USSR and Eastern Europe we will finish. But studying of foreign experience on it does not come to an end, in the following cycle of articles, we will move further according to the world map and we will consider how the situation in this question in countries of Western Europe is.

ATTENTION
the text is translated by means of technical means of the translation
original language of the text – Russian
some words and phrases can be translated not correctly and not correspond to original sense

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